Mucosal basal cell proliferation and would have differentiated into mucus-secreting goblet cells. Looks like metaplastik activity occurs due to change of columnar epithelium lining the epithelium skuamus, which is accompanied by cellular atipia and increased mitotic activity that develop into mucosal dysplasia. Span of time this process has not been established, only approximately estimated between 10 to 20 years.
More than 90% of lung cancers originated from the bronchus, until the cancer is called carcinoma bronkogenik, which consists of:
- Skuamus cell carcinoma
- Small cell carcinoma
- Large cell carcinoma
- Lung adenocarcinoma
Alveolar cell carcinoma originating from the alveoli in the lungs. This cancer can be a single growth, but often strike more than one area in the lung.
- Lung tumors are less common are:
- Adenomas (can be malignant or benign)
- Kondromatous hamartoma (benign)
- Sarcomas (malignant)
Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymph system, which can be derived from the lung or is spread from other organs. Many cancers that originate from other places to spread to the lungs. This cancer usually comes from the breast, colon, prostate, kidney, thyroid, stomach, cervix, rectum, testicles, bone and skin.
Smoking is a major cause of about 90% of cases of lung cancer in men and about 70% in women. The more cigarettes smoked, the greater the risk for lung cancer.
Only a small proportion of lung cancers (about 10% -15% in men and 5% in women) caused by or inhaled substances encountered in the workplace. Working with asbestos, radiation, arsenic, chromate, nickel, chloromethyl ethers, mustard gas and coke oven emissions can cause lung cancer, although usually only occurs in workers who also smoke.
The role of air pollution as a cause of lung cancer is still unclear. Some cases occur because of exposure by radon gas in the household. Sometimes lung cancer (particularly adenocarcinoma and alveolar cell carcinoma) occurred in people who already have lung scarring due to other lung diseases, like tuberculosis and fibrosis.